Whether or not we are aware of it, climate change impacts all of us on a day-to-day basis. In 2020, more so than ever, it is a topic on everyone’s radar. 有全球新闻媒体的定期专题报道, it is becoming increasingly important for individuals 和 organisations to make changes to the way in which they operate, 减少碳足迹.
然而经常, we consider climate change through an environmental or social lens, 而不是作为经济学家. The former could be an effective angle in driving behaviour change in individuals, but organisations have to consider how they can exist viably. Therefore, we must quantify the impact of business actions in terms of how they affect our climate.
通过几千年前的研究, Professor Mark和ya found that the carbon dependency of the global economy had increased, 和, without intervention it would continue in the same direction. He stated that recommendations for policies were needed quickly, with input from the energy sector in order to slow down the impact of global activities on our climate.
One of the most influential organisations relating to climate change is the 政府间气候变化委员会(IPCC)它是联合国的一个分支机构. 它的目标是为各级政府提供服务, with scientific information they can use to develop climate policies.
每隔几年, an assessment report is produced compiling a review of thous和s of scientific papers published each year. The aim is to provide a comprehensive summary of; what is known about the drivers of climate change, 其影响和未来风险, 以及适应和缓解如何能够减少这些风险. The impact of this report is best demonstrated by its receiving of a Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Mark和ya’s contributions to this report were specifically acknowledged by the Chair of the IPCC.
Following his successful authorship for previous issues of the same report, in 2014, Mark和ya教授被邀请成为 IPCC第五次评估报告. The report cited numerous pieces of his previous research that led to a recommendation that not all adaptation actions are investment based. The report highlighted policy actions are also important tools for driving change.
它的影响是深远的, in that approval of the final report was given from over 100 governments globally. Many national 和 regional governments including the UK 和 EU, 在制定自己的气候目标时也考虑到了这一点.
The report, 和 subsequent Synthesis Report, received significant praise:
'Its assessment of the state of the climate is the most comprehensive ever written 和 it provides a strengthened body of evidence of man-made climate change.'
'The Synthesis Report provides a strengthened case for international leaders to act now to reduce domestic carbon emissions'. - 英国能源和气候变化部
2018年，IPCC发布了一份 “全球变暖1.5°C’ 马尔甘迪亚是其中一名特约作者. The focus of this report was on the impacts of global warming in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, 可持续发展和减贫努力.
The report relies heavily on findings from Mark和ya’s book ‘A New Blueprint for a Green Economy.“通过他在巴斯期间进行的研究, he discussed the concept of a ‘low-carbon economy’ 和 ‘green energy economy’. It stated an urgent need for radical changes in order to achieve full decarbonisation of economy systems.
另一个利用这份报告的机构是 缔约方会议(COP). The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the United Nations, 和 often draws upon the IPCC’s work (such as this report) for objective scientific 和 technical advice. At the Katowice Climate Change Conference in 2018, the special report on Global Warming of 1.5°C成为了一个关键的科学投入.
Also up for review during this particular conference was the 巴黎协定, which deals with greenhouse-gas-emission mitigation, adaptation 和 finance. An agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 它包括来自188个州的代表. The information contained in the special report was further utilised in these review discussions.
此外, more than 490 companies are already developing business strategies that are aligned with the 巴黎协定’s goal of limiting temperature rise to well-below 2°C, 本报告的结果.
A key part of the response to climate change is adaptation to inevitable changes that are already happening 和 that will become more severe. 联合国系统的一份重要报告是 适应差异报告, which tracks progress on adaptation 和 identifies areas where targets are not being met 和 progress is inadequate. It receives very wide circulation 和 is influential the setting policy goals for adaptation. Professor Mark和ya has been on the Scientific Committee that advises on the Report since 2016 when the first report was produced. 今年已经发布了第五份报告.
新冠肺炎疫情对所有经济体都产生了重大影响, as well as influencing climate change targets both for mitigation ad adaptation. The links are complex: although greenhouse emissions have declined there are signs that they are now overshooting the previous path. Moreover, actions on adaptation 和 finance for adaptation have suffered. 马尔甘迪亚教授是一篇 联合国环境规划署的报告 对这些问题进行了非常详细的研究, 特别是COVID对粮食系统的影响.